Hexacorallia. Zooxanthellate members of the order Zoantharia (Anthozoa: Hexaco...

Zoantharia (Hexacorallia) is an order of benthic cnida

Pronunciation of Hexacorallia: Learn how to pronounce the word Hexacorallia.Definition and meaning can be found here: https://www.google.com/search?q=define+...In this study, a fast and cheap species delimitation tool for Octocorallia and Scleractinia, an order of the Hexacorallia, of the Northeast Atlantic was tested based on 49 specimens.Black corals (Anthozoa: Antipatharia) are an ecologically and culturally important group of deep-sea cnidarians. However, as the majority of species inhabit depths >50 m, they are relatively understudied. The inaccessibility of well-preserved tissue for species of interest has limited the scope of molecular analysis, and as a result only a small number of antipatharian mitochondrial genomes ... Hexactinellida. Glass sponges occur world­wide, mostly at depths be­tween 200 and 1000 m. This group of sponges are es­pe­cially abun­dant in the Antarc­tic. All glass sponges are up­right, and pos­sess spe­cial­ized struc­tures at their bases for hold­ing fast to the ocean floor. Most ap­pear out­wardly to be ra­di­ally sym ...Hexacorallia, however, includes several major groups of extinct and modern corals that produced calcium carbonate skeletons, resulting in a superb fossil record. Soft-bodied sea anemones and several other groups also belong to the Hexacorallia. Most of these groups have polyp-like adult forms. The order Zoantharia Gray, 1832 is a member of the class Anthozoa and the subclass Hexacorallia, most closely related to the sea anemones (order Actiniaria) (Fujii and Reimer 2013).In overall gross morphology, zoantharians resemble the actiniarians to some degree, and hence their common names, 'colonial sea anemones' and 'encrusting sea anemones.'Phagocytosis is the cellular defense mechanism used to eliminate antigens derived from dysregulated or damaged cells, and microbial pathogens. Phagocytosis is therefore a pillar of innate immunity, whereby foreign particles are engulfed and degraded in lysolitic vesicles. In hexacorallians, phagocytic mechanisms are poorly understood, though ...Blastopathes medusa gen. nov., sp. nov., is described from Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, based on morphological and molecular data. Blastopathes, assigned to the Antipathidae, is a large, mythology-inspiring black coral characterized by clusters of elongate stem-like branches that extend out at their …Hexacorallia) util izing nuclear ITS-rDNA. Coral Reefs 26: 39 9-410. Reimer JD, Takishita K, Ono S, Tsukahara J, Mar uyama T. 2007c. Molecula r evidence sugge sting int erspe ci c hybrid i-Black corals (Anthozoa: Antipatharia) are an ecologically and culturally important group of deep-sea cnidarians. However, as the majority of species inhabit depths >50 m, they are relatively understudied. The inaccessibility of well-preserved tissue for species of interest has limited the scope of molecular analysis, and as a result only a small number of antipatharian mitochondrial genomes ...Zoantharia (Hexacorallia) is an order of benthic cnidarians, which are known to play an important ecological role in many marine ecosystems. Although the order has a cosmopolitan distribution ...Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, we discover a third apical morphology in nematocysts, an apical cap, which we find in all nonactiniarian anthozoans examined. This apical cap is identical structurally to the apical cap of spirocysts, and it resembles the apical structure of ptychocysts, whose apex is documented here for the ...Extensive duplication and divergence of opsins is a common feature of Hexacorallia. The addition of more anthozoan sequences in our phylogeny reveals opsin gene family expansions are common in Hexacorallia (Fig. 2). In general, all anthozoans have two ASO-I opsin paralogs that group into two monophyletic subclades, suggesting that two ASO-I ...The caryophylliid genus Crispatotrochus Tenison-Woods, 1878 is distributed worldwide and comprises 14 extant azooxanthellate and solitary species. Despite being recovered as closely related to Caryophyllia in three studies [1, 12, 13], only Crispatotrochus rugosus has nucleotide sequences available to date (one nuclear marker - i.e., 28S rDNA, and two mitochondrial markers - i.e., 12S rDNA ...Anthozoa is a class that consists of two subclasses, Hexacorallia (stony corals and sea anemones) and Octocorallia (soft corals and red corals). Medusozoa is a subphylum that consists of four classes, Hydrozoa (Hydra), Scyphozoa (true jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Staurozoa (stalked jellyfish) (Technau and Steel, 2011).Within the Hexacorallia, the order Scleractinia (stony corals) has received significant research interest because stony corals are the key ecosystem engineers on coral reefs, which host an estimated 830,000 multicellular species (Fisher et al., 2015). Hermatypic (reef-building) Scleractinia are generally colonial and represent approximately ...Coral Biology The basic living unit of the class Anthozoa (further subdivided into subclass Hexacorallia, which includes stony corals, and subclass Octocorallia, which includes soft corals) is the polyp. Polyps can occur either singularly, as in the case of anenomes, or can form colonies, as they do in stony and soft corals. This section is […] Order [unassigned] Caenogastropoda (temporary name) Environment. marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial. Original description. Cox, L. R. (1960). Thoughts on the classification of the Gastropoda. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London. 33 (6): 239−261. [details] Available for editors [request] Taxonomic citation. WoRMS (2023).In Hexacorallia, all genes in the mt genome are encoded on the same strand. Moreover, the five orders of Hexacorallia for which complete mt genomes have been sequenced differ radically from one another in gene order (Medina et al. 2006; Uda et al. 2011) (fig. 5).Tutto il materiale contenuto nel sito è di proprietà di Hexacorallia di Tommaso Mascioli con sede in Roma - Italia, Via Franco Sacchetti 21/d. Ne è vietata quindi ogni riproduzione, anche parziale, senza l'autorizzazione scritta di Hexacorallia di Tommaso Mascioli ivi compresi, a titolo meramente esemplificativo, testi, immagini, filmati ...May 8, 2023 · Hexacorallia. Overall, all phylogenies constructed for Hexacorallia were well supported (Table 1). Among all nuclear trees constructed with ASTRAL and IQTree, 83 to 97% of nodes (106 total nodes ... The monophyly of Octocorallia and its sister relationship to Hexacorallia was confirmed by early molecular phylogenetic studies, which used partial or complete 18S ribosomal DNA sequences (Bridge ...TUGAS MATA KULIAH KORALOGI Nama : Linda Apriliani Nim : 1610716120003 “HEXACORALLIA” Hexacorallia merupakan jenis karang keras dimana spesies ini merupakan organisme yang terbentuk dari polip colonial denan bentuk simetri 6 kali lipat. Pada beberapa jenis hexacorallia memiliki rangka kapur dan juga beberapa tidak memiliki rangka kapur. context source (Hexacorallia) Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS) basis of record Wallace CC. (1999). Staghorn corals of the world: a revision of the coral genus Acropora (Scleractinia; Astrocoeniina; Acroporidae) worldwide, with emphasis on morphology, phylogeny and biogeography. CSIRO, Collingwood ...Coral Biology The basic living unit of the class Anthozoa (further subdivided into subclass Hexacorallia, which includes stony corals, and subclass Octocorallia, which includes soft corals) is the polyp. Polyps can occur either singularly, as in the case of anenomes, or can form colonies, as they do in stony and soft corals. This section is […]In many invertebrate systems, including Hexacorallia, distinct immune cell types and the accompanying phagocytic functional mechanisms have not been as well described. …Our research presents the first record of Tubastraea tagusensis (Wells, Notes on Indo-Pacific scleractinian corals. Part 9. New corals from the Galápagos Islands, 1982) in the Gulf of Mexico. Specimens of Tubastraea were collected from various artificial reefs. Morphological analyses of these specimens show that there are three distinct lineages of Tubastraea that have remained cryptic due to ...Nov 7, 2003 · Subclass Hexacorallia (= Zoantharia) of cnidarian class Anthozoa currently contains six orders: Actiniaria (sea anemones), Antipatharia (black corals), Ceriantharia …Tabulata, commonly known as tabulate corals, are an order of extinct forms of coral.They are almost always colonial, forming colonies of individual hexagonal cells known as corallites defined by a skeleton of calcite, similar in appearance to a honeycomb.Adjacent cells are joined by small pores. Their distinguishing feature is their well-developed horizontal internal partitions (tabulae ...Jul 26, 2021 · Phagocytosis is the cellular defense mechanism used to eliminate antigens derived from dysregulated or damaged cells, and microbial pathogens. Phagocytosis is therefore a pillar of innate immunity, whereby foreign particles are engulfed and degraded in lysolitic vesicles. In hexacorallians, phagocytic mechanisms are poorly understood, though ... However, our data on the neuropeptide genes in the ceriantharian P. borealis strongly suggest that ceriantharians are more closely related to Hexacorallia than to Octocorallia. This is especially clear for the GLWamide genes that are absent in Octocorallia , but present in P. borealis and in all Hexacorallia (Table 6, Supplementary file 3).Jun 16, 2021 · The phylogeny supports reciprocally monophyletic Hexacorallia and Octocorallia, with Ceriantharia as the earliest diverging hexacorals; two reciprocally monophyletic clades of Octocorallia; and monophyly of all hexacoral orders with the exception of the enigmatic sea anemone Relicanthus daphneae. Divergence dating …Hexacorallia Phylum Cnidaria Kingdom Animalia; Size Range 4 cm; Introduction. The Waratah Anemone is named after the beautiful red Waratah flower that is the emblem of New South Wales. Identification. This small, brown-red anemone is the most noticeable species of anemone on Sydney's rocky shores.In general terms Hexacorallia are characterized by the possession of a multiple of six mesenteries (endodermal septae reaching into the gastric cavity), while Octocorallia have always 8 mesenteries. However, the main model system among anthozoans, the hexacorallian sea anemone Nematostella vectensis also has 8 mesenteries, which has been ...Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Scleractinia. Scientific Specimen › Marine ... Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Scleractinia, MA143032, © Auckland Museum CC ...Jul 1, 2008 · Abstract. Sea anemones (order Actiniaria) are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, being found at all depths …Tutto il materiale contenuto nel sito è di proprietà di Hexacorallia di Tommaso Mascioli con sede in Roma - Italia, Via Franco Sacchetti 21/d. Ne è vietata quindi ogni riproduzione, anche parziale, senza l'autorizzazione scritta di Hexacorallia di Tommaso Mascioli ivi compresi, a titolo meramente esemplificativo, testi, immagini, filmati ...& G. Bavestrello (2009) Description of Pseudocirrhipathes (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipathidae), a new genus of whip black corals from the Indo‐Pacific, Italian Journal of Zoology, 76 ...A classe Anthozoa à qual pertencem os corais é dividida em duas subclasses: Octocorallia e Hexacorallia. A diferença básica entre os dois é o número de tentáculos que cada um possui. Da mesma forma, os corais são uma parte importante dos ecossistemas marinhos nos quais se desenvolvem, pois contribuem significativamente para manter o seu ...Tabulata, commonly known as tabulate corals, are an order of extinct forms of coral.They are almost always colonial, forming colonies of individual hexagonal cells known as corallites defined by a skeleton of calcite, similar in appearance to a honeycomb.Adjacent cells are joined by small pores. Their distinguishing feature is their well-developed horizontal internal partitions (tabulae ...Flickr photos, groups, and tags related to the "hexacorallia" Flickr tag.Request PDF | Preliminary molecular examination of zooxanthellate zoanthid (Hexacorallia, Zoantharia) and associated zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp.) diversity in Singapore | Singapore is located ...Di­ver­sity. The Hy­dro­zoa is a sub­group of cnidar­i­ans con­taing­ing ap­prox­i­mately 3700 species. It is a di­verse group with a va­ri­ety of life cy­cles, growth forms, and spe­cial­ized struc­tures. Like many cnidar­i­ans, hy­dro­zoans have …Zoantharia (Hexacorallia; phylum Cnidaria, class Anthozoa) A subclass of solitary and colonial anthozoans, with or without a calcareous exoskeleton, that are characterized by paired mesenteries being first developed in a cycle of six; and by the insertion of new pairs in two (ventrolateral), four (lateral and ventrolateral), or all six primary e...This report presents the first records of the zooxanthellate species Zoanthus sansibaricus (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia: Zoanthidae) from Jeju Island, Korea, in the East China Sea, and from Dogo-jima Island in the Oki Islands, Japan, in the Sea of Japan (= East Sea). Its discovery at Jeju Island also represents the first formal record of the order Zoantharia from Korea, while the record ...context source (Hexacorallia) Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS) basis of record Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS) additional source Vaughan TW. (1907). Recent Madreporaria of ...nomic order within the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia that encompasses 7 families, 43 genera and over 235 species (see Daly et al ., 2007; Bo 2008 ). Black corals have long been treasured by ...Species Acthelmis intestinalis (Fabricius, 1780) Species Acthelmis schaudinnii Carlgren, 1921 accepted as Haliactis arctica Carlgren, 1921 (Synonymy) Environment. marine. Original description. Lütken, C. (1875). A revised catalogue of the Anthozoa and Calycozoa of Greenland. Authority of the Lords and Commissioners of the Admirality.Antipatharians, commonly known as black corals, represent a taxonomic order within the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia that encompasses 7 families, 43 genera and over 235 species (see Daly et al., 2007; Bo 2008). Black corals have long been treasured by humans for a variety of purposes ranging from jewellery to their presumed ability to fend ...Hexacorallia 158 This subclass was the most investigated group in Anthozoa, with a total of 124 studies (=76.1% of 159 total). In the analyses below, we examined which categories of studies were most conducted for 160 each order. 161 • Actiniaria 162 163 This order had 56 studies related to feeding aspects (Table 3). ...Vafidis D, Koukouras A, Voultsiadou-Koukoura E. 1997. Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia, and Scleractinia (Hexacorallia, Anthozoa) of the Aegean Sea, with a checklist of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea species. Israel Journal of Zoology 43:55-70. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar] Vaissiere R, Carpine C. 1964.The order Zoantharia (zoanthid) is a group of benthic colonial anthozoans which belongs to the subclass Hexacorallia. They are characterized by having two rows of tentacles and one ventral siphonoglyph (Haddon and Shackleton 1891).These cnidarians are found in many marine ecosystems and are particularly common in coral reef ecosystems worldwide (Burnett et al. 1994, 1995; Reimer et al. 2011).Nov 22, 2018 · Hexacorallia (anemones, corallimorpharians, zoanthids and scleractinian corals) and Octocorallia (gorgonians) are both monophyletic groups within class Anthozoa.Parascolymia Wells, 1964. Symphyllia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848. Lobophyllia, commonly called lobed brain coral or lobo coral, is a genus of large polyp stony corals. Members of this genus are sometimes found in reef aquariums .Sep 16, 2008 · Modern hard corals (Class Hexacorallia; Order Scleractinia) are widely studied because of their fundamental role in reef building and their superb fossil record extending back to the Triassic. Nevertheless, interpretations of their evolutionary relationships have been in flux for over a decade. Recent analyses undermine the …Black corals (Anthozoa: Antipatharia) are an ecologically and culturally important group of deep-sea cnidarians. However, as the majority of species inhabit depths >50 m, they are relatively understudied. The inaccessibility of well-preserved tissue for species of interest has limited the scope of molecular analysis, and as a result only a small number of antipatharian mitochondrial genomes ... 45 likes, 2 comments - tc.scientific on September 13, 2020: "Kunstformen Der Natur #️⃣2⃣ • • Known in English as Art Forms in Nature is a book of li..."Our research presents the first record of Tubastraea tagusensis (Wells, Notes on Indo-Pacific scleractinian corals. Part 9. New corals from the Galápagos Islands, 1982) in the Gulf of Mexico.BIOGEOINFORMATICS OF HEXACORALLIA (CORALS, SEA ANEMONES, AND THEIR ALLIES): INTERFACING GEOSPATIAL, TAXONOMIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL DATA FOR A GROUP OF MARINE INVERTEBRATES. Principal Investigator: Daphne Gail Fautin Co-Principal Investigator: Robert W. Buddemeier. Welcome to the web site for the National Science Foundation Project OCE 00-03970.Hexacorallia (Subclass) Antipatharia (Order) Aphanipathidae (Family) Aphanipathinae (Subfamily) Aphanipathes (Genus) Aphanipathes somervillei (Species) Status unaccepted (New combination) Accepted Name. Acanthopathes somervillei (Cooper, 1909) Rank. Species Parent ...1. Introduction. Stony corals (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Scleractinia) comprise some of the most well-studied marine organisms in the world, yet a thoroughly supported molecular phylogeny of this iconic lineage remains elusive due to the scarcity of phylogenetically informative markers (Budd et al., 2010, Fukami, 2008, Kitahara et al., 2016; but see Quattrini et al., 2018, Quek et al., 2020).We have sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene from 29 species of Anthozoa, representing six orders of the subclasses Ceriantipatharia, Hexacorallia, and Octocorallia, with the focus on deep-seamount corals (> 500-m depth). We have detected significant length variation in the gene …Provided to YouTube by RoutenoteHexacorallia · CZARHexacorallia℗ Felipe ArcazasReleased on: 2014-01-01Auto-generated by YouTube.Figure 1. Maximum-likelihood, phylogenetic reconstruction based on the complete mitochondrial proteome of two Stichopathes species (in bold) collected from Rapa Nui (Easter Island) and 21 representatives of Antipatharia and eight representatives from other Hexacorallia subclasses as outgroups: Scleractinia, Corallimorpharia, Actiniaria, and …Zoantharia (or Zoanthidea) is the third largest order of Hexacorallia, characterised by two rows of tentacles, one siphonoglyph and a colonial way of life. Current systematics of Zoantharia is ...Hexacorallia was shown to be th e most investigated anthozoan subclass with a total of 124 studies (76.1%). This was the only subclass that had scientific papers for all its constituent orders.Agaricia agaricites. ( Linnaeus, 1758) [2] Agaricia agaricites, commonly known as lettuce coral or tan lettuce-leaf coral, is a species of colonial stony corals in the family Agariciidae. This coral is found in shallow waters in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The IUCN has assessed its status as being Vulnerable.and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Compared to other members of Anthozoa or Hexacorallia, actiniarians show great diversity in polyp anatomy; mesentery arrangement, musculature, column morphology, and tentacle morphology all vary within this group.Cnidarians are early‐diverging metazoans, but evolutionary aspects of some taxa are still poorly understood, as in the order Zoantharia (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). Zoantharians have been divided into two suborders based on the arrangement of the fifth septae as complete (Macrocnemina) or incomplete (Brachycnemina).Antipatharians (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia), commonly known as black corals are represented by over 275 recognized species that are characterized principally by a spiny proteinaceous skeleton. In the ...Redirecting to https://www.hexacoralliastore.com/waterbox.html.Reimer JD, Hirose M, Irei Y, Obuchi M, Sinniger F. (2011a) The sands of time: Rediscovery of the genus Neozoanthus (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia) and evolutionary aspects of sand encrustation in brachycnemic zoanthids. Marine Biology 158: 983-993. doi: 10.1007/s00227-011-1624-8 [Google Scholar]A virágállatokat alapvetően felépítésük szimmetriája szerint két alosztályba sorolják: hatosztatú virágállatok (Hexacorallia) és a; nyolcosztatú virágállatok (Octocorallia, illetve Alcyonaria).; A régebbi rendszertanok az Antipatharia és a Ceriantharia rendeket külön vették; ez volt a csöves virágállatok (Ceriantipatharia) alosztálya (Lőrinczi–Torma).Hexacorallia (Subclass) Actiniaria (Order) Enthemonae (Suborder) Metridioidea (Superfamily) Isanthidae (Family) Neophellia (Genus) Status unaccepted. Accepted Name. Flosmaris Stephenson, 1920. Rank. Genus Parent. Isanthidae Carlgren, 1938. Direct children (1) Species ...original description Haeckel, E. (1896). Systematische Phylogenie. Entwurf eines Natürlichen Systems der Organismen auf Grund ihrer Stammesgeschichte. Zweiter Theil: Systematische Phylogenie der wirbellosen Thiere (Invertebrata). Genera of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia), and their type species. Zootaxa, 1668, 183-244 page(s): 190-191 . From editor or global species database. Additional information Taxon not identified as valid in Fautin (2016), but not identified as a synonym. Identity of type species unknown, making alignment ...Octocorallia. Octocorallia (also known as Alcyonaria) is a class of Anthozoa comprising around 3,000 species of water-based organisms formed of colonial polyps with 8-fold symmetry. It includes the blue coral, soft corals, sea pens, and gorgonians (sea fans and sea whips) within three orders: Alcyonacea, Helioporacea, and Pennatulacea. [1]Hexacorallia (Subclass) Actiniaria (Order) Enthemonae (Suborder) Actinioidea (Superfamily) Minyadidae (Family) Nautactis (Genus) Status. accepted. Rank. Genus Parent. Minyadidae Milne Edwards, 1857. Direct children (3) [sort alpha..] Species Nautactis purpurea Moseley, 1877 Species ...Zooxantelas in tentacles of polyp Porites astreoid. The hexacorals or hexacorallarians ( Hexacorallia ), also known as zoantarians ( Zoantharia b>), are a subclass of solitary or colonial anthozoan cnidarians that includes anemones and true corals. Polyps present a gastrovascular cavity divided into many chambers by septa or sarcosepta. The ecological success of shallow-water reef-building corals (Hexacorallia: Scleractinia) is framed by their intimate endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae). In contrast, the closely related black corals (Hexacorallia: Anthipatharia) are described as azooxanthellate (lacking Symbiodinium), a trait thought to reflect their preference for low ...Ordo dari hexacorallia terbagi menjadi 6 yaitu: karang batu (Scleractinia), anemon laut (Actiniaria) dan terkait tabung-tinggal anemon (Ceriantharia), dan zoanthids (Zoantharia), Antipatharia berisi karang hitam dan Corallimorpharia mirip dengan anemon. Semua ordo tersebut akan dibahas masing- masing di bawah ini: f1.Zoantharia (=Zoanthidea) are an order of Hexacorallia currently divided into two suborders, the Macrocnemina and the Brachycnemina. Brachycneminic zoantharians such as the genera Palythoa and Zoanthus are often in symbioses with zooxanthellae, and are commonly found in shallow subtropical and tropical waters. Macrocneminic zoantharians are more ...TUGAS MATA KULIAH KORALOGI Nama : Linda Apriliani Nim : 1610716120003 “HEXACORALLIA” Hexacorallia merupakan jenis karang keras dimana spesies ini merupakan organisme yang terbentuk dari polip colonial denan bentuk simetri 6 kali lipat. Pada beberapa jenis hexacorallia memiliki rangka kapur dan juga beberapa tidak memiliki rangka kapur.Within the “orders” that traditionally compose the Hexacorallia, only Ceriantharia does not have a representative with a complete mitochondrial genome determined to date. Phylogenetic studies of cerianthids based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers have resulted in reconstructions divergent from those based on morphology [11] ; [13] – [15] .There have been few detailed studies on the associations between cnidarians and gastropod mollusks. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain the origins of these symbioses. However, respective benefits for gastropod mollusks and cnidarians have generally not been well examined, as there are many understudied cnidarian taxa associated with gastropod mollusks, and in particular, species .... In this study, three new species of macroA new comatulid of the family Antedonidae, Dor In Hexacorallia, all genes in the mt genome are encoded on the same strand. Moreover, the five orders of Hexacorallia for which complete mt genomes have been sequenced differ radically from one another in gene order (Medina et al. 2006; Uda et al. 2011) (fig. 5). The Order Zoantharia has long been taxonomically neglected Correctly delimiting species and populations is a prerequisite for studies of connectivity, adaptation and conservation. Genomic data are particularly useful to test species differentiation for organisms with few informative morphological characters or low discrimination of cytoplasmic markers, as i …Zoantharians are colonial cnidarians commonly found in shallow tropical Caribbean coral reefs, and are known to be globally distributed. Common species in genera Zoanthus and Palythoa occur at Toco, Trinidad, where they are more abundant than their Scleractinia counterparts relative to benthic coverage. In this study, distribution, morphological and molecular data were collected to determine ... The Hexacorallia subclass contains some of the most rec...

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